The Nine Ways of Participating in Another’s Sin

Historically, the Church has used the following set of nine ways that one can participate in another’s sins. I take this from the Summa Theologica:

  • by command 
  • by counsel 
  • by consent 
  • by flattery 
  • by receiving 
  • by participation 
  • by silence
  • by not preventing 
  • by not denouncing

These nine items are a good test for our individual actions, but they also provide an excellent standard for corporate behavior.

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