Peter Leithart says that Greeks and other ancient pagans saw history as “essentially tragic.”
Things had begun well in a world of plenty and joy, but the world was bound to degenerate and decline until it sputtered and whimpered to a halt.
In contrast, the Bible is all about a bright future (hence postmillenialism). He says in his book “Deep Comedy”:
Against the classical nostalgia for a golden age lost and unlikely to be revived, the Bible, beginning with the prophets of Israel and continuing into the New Testament, holds out the promise of a future age of glory, peace, justice and abundance. The last state is not worse than the first, and infinitely superior to the painful evils of the ages between the first and last.